Although at present there is no cure for type 1 diabetes mellitus, good treatments are available that can enable affected children to lead healthy, active lives. Insulin regimens should be designed to optimize metabolic control while minimizing the risk of adverse events, such as hypoglycemic episodes, which can be more serious in children. Regimens of 3 in- jections per day work well for children who cannot receive an injection at lunchtime, while multiple daily injection (MDI) regimens provide more flexibility. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) can provide better quality of life than MDI regimens, but CSII requires a high level of motivation and carries its own risks. In all children, insulin regimens must be adjusted to accommodate the physiological changes of growth and development. Long-term follow-up is important to monitor for complications of diabetes.