This baby boy was born at term to an 18-year-old primigravida via spontaneous vaginal delivery. The membranes ruptured about 6 hours before delivery. The amniotic fluid was heavily stained with meconium. Forceps were not used during the delivery. The newborn initially had poor tone and no spontaneous respirations, but his heart rate exceeded 100 beats per minute. Bulb and deep suctioning as well as supplemental oxygen were provided. Apgar scores were 3 and 8 at 1 and 5 minutes.
A 15-year-old girl was brought to the emergency department because of bilateral shoulder and hip pain associated with myalgia and fatigue. The symptoms had been present for 2 months and had increased in intensity over the past few days. The patient had systemic lupus erythematosus, asthma, and seizure disorder.
The parents of a 9-month-old boy were concerned about the bright red color of their son's feces. Over the course of an hour, the infant had 3 bowel movements that appeared to the family to be "more blood than stool." He had no fever or emesis and no history of unusual contacts or travel. There had been no change in his diet; he had not been given any dietary supplements, such as iron.
Henna and Hair DyeA 16-year-old Somali girl presented with a 30-day history of bilateral arm swelling and painful vesicular eruptions.Five days before presentation, she and her friends had used henna and black hair dye to “tattoo” their skin. Theothers did not experience similar signs or symptoms. This patient had used henna since childhood for decorativepurposes. However, outlining an intricate design with hair dye was new for her.This patient was hospitalized and treated for severe cosmetic dermatitis with systemic corticosteroids,diphenhydramine, and daily dry dressing changes. Ibuprofen was given to help relieve discomfort. Antibioticswere not ordered.The patient remained afebrile and was discharged on hospital day 2 with close follow-up and daily dressingchanges. She was advised to avoid contact with all hair-dye products.Case and photo courtesy of Jennifer A. Jewell, MD, and Lorraine L. McElwain, MD.
Severe disability and even death can result from the inappropriate diagnosis and treatment of a young child's wheezing, which is heterogeneous in its origins and expression. Consequently, a differential diagnosis is necessary to determine the cause and to develop an effective management strategy. Viral-induced wheeze, especially from respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), manifests as a bronchiolitis. Recent reports show that the cysteinyl leukotrienes are an important mediator of the airway effects of RSV infection and that leukotriene receptor antagonists reduce postrespiratory syncytial virus lung symptoms. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction manifests as wheezing and can be treated or pretreated short-term with inhaled bronchodilators or cromolyn: long-term therapy includes inhaled corticosteroids and leukotriene receptor antagonists. Allergic rhinitis-associated wheeze may be the result of acute exposure to an allergen or simply from nasal dysfunction. Control of allergic rhinitis with intranasal steroids, antihistamines, or leukotriene receptor antagonists could relieve the wheezing. Asthma-associated wheeze requires long-term use of 1 or more daily controller medications. The primary goal is to navigate the child safely through the first episode of wheezing, consider the causes of the wheeze, and then evaluate the need for further therapy. All apparent causes of wheeze should be treated with the idea that if the apparent cause turns out not to be the actual cause, treatment can be safely discontinued.
Photoclinic: Eosinophilic Esophagitis
Foreign-body aspiration is a relatively common occurrence in children. It may present as a life-threatening event that necessitates prompt removal of the aspirated material. However, the diagnosis may be delayed when the history is atypical, when parents fail to appreciate the significance of symptoms, or when clinical and radiologic findings are misleading or overlooked by the physician.
A thriving boy was brought to the office 3 weeks after his first birthday. His mother reported that there was "something wrong with his knee." On visual examination, the knee appeared perfectly normal. On palpation, however, a 4-cm linear induration was evident over the knee fat pad, just medial and distal to the patella. It appeared soft, crepitant, and associated with the skin. No tenderness was noted on palpation; the infant did not object to palpation of this density any more than to auscultation, otoscopy, or anthropometric measurements. No erythema, ecchymosis, or signs of trauma were evident near the lesion. The only possibly relevant history was that the child had spent his birthday at his grandmother's home in the Ukraine a month earlier. He was constantly with his mother during that time, and no trauma was ever reported.
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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is very common. In the United States, between 6% and 10% of children and adolescents are affected, as are 4% of adults.1 Children in other countries also have ADHD, although rates of comorbid disorders may vary from those found in the United States.2